Stomach: Anatomy & Physiology of the Digestive System

The stomach continues the digestive process by releasing acids and enzymes and churning the food in order to further break it down.

  • It is a J-shaped enlargement of the GI tract.
  • When empty, the stomach is small, but it can expand to accommodate large quantities of food.

The stomach is categorized into four parts:

  1. Cardia — the superior (top) opening of the stomach.
  2. Fundus — the rounded section at the top left.
  3. Body — the large central portion.
  4. Pyloris — the inferior (lower) portion; the pyloris communicates with the duodenum / small intestine via a sphincter called the pyloric sphincter.